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网站威尼斯游戏网站 >> 新闻资讯 >>行业动态 >> 【农业科技】国内外无人化农业的发展历程与趋势
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【农业科技】国内外无人化农业的发展历程与趋势

时间:2022-07-20     【转载】   阅读

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近年来,数字化、自动化、智能化技术在农业领域应用步伐加快,无人化农业发展引发社会广泛关注。无人化农业包括生产信息采集设施、生产作业装备和生产管理平台等三大组成部分,以全过程智能化管理、精准化作业为核心,通过大数据指导生产运行,能够实现节本、高效、精准、绿色,形成类似于无人工厂的农业生产方式,是现代农业的一个重要发展方向。总体上看,发达国家无人化农业研发起步早,但应用还不广泛。我国在这方面起步较晚,发展速度较快。


一、无人化大田种植:大田种植作业工况条件复杂,实现无人化作业难度较大。北美、西欧具备基础但需求不紧迫,日韩处于萌芽阶段,我国正逐步兴起。


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beimei、xiou、aozhoudengdifadaguojiayijingkaishiyingyongzidonghuazhuangbeikaizhannongyeshengchan,danduifazhanwurenhuanongyehaimeiyoumingxianxuqiu。meiguodazhongxingnongchangdouyingyongzidongdaohangjiashixitonglaishixiantuolaji、lianheshougejidengzidonghuazuoye,2019nianmeiguonongjizidongdaohangjiashixitongpujilvyuewei90%。zaichanpinchuangxinfangmian,yuehandier、kaisiniuhelanzai2016nianfenbiedoutuichulewurenhuagainiantuolajijipeitaonongju,buguomuqianbingweishangyehuayingyong。


riben、hanguodengshengchanguimojiaoxiaodeguojiahediqu,wurenhuanongjizhuangbeishangchumengyajieduan。ribenzhuyaonongjiqiyejiyu“1gejishou、2taijiqi”shexiang,tuichuledaiyougaojingduweixingdingweidaohanggongnengheyaokonggongnengdezidonghuanongjichanpin。2018nian,jiubaotiangongsixianhoushangshiledaiyouzidongjiashigongnengdeshuidaoshouhuoji、tuolaji。woguodatianzhongzhizidonghuanongjizhuangbeiyufadaguojiacunzaichaju,danfazhanqushijiakuai,wurenhuanongjixinchanpinxiangjiwenshi。“dongfanghong”“abosi”wurenjiashituolaji、“gushen”wurenjiashilianheshougejiyikaizhanshiyanhezuoyeshifan;“fengjiang”gaosuwurenjiashichayangjishixianleshuitianyuandidiaotouduixing、yangpanzidongtishengdenggongneng。heilongjiang、xinjiang、jiangsu、shandongdengduogeliangmianzhuchanshengfenxiangjikaizhanlequanguochengwurenhuanongyeshengchanshiyan。yixinjiangshengchanjianshebingtuanweili,qishuzinongyeshidianjianshexiangmuyijingxingchenglemianhuageng、zhong、guan、shouquanchengshuzihuashengchanguanlimoshi。mianhuazhongzhiquanbushiyongweixingdaohangzidongjiashijishu,zaiyejianhuonengjiandujiaochadetianqizuoyeyekezuodaozhunqueduixing,zhenggezuoyejimeitaijijujiaoshoudongjiashipingjunduobozhong1000mu,yuanxianrengongjiashibozhong10xingdedikuaicaiyongzidongjiashikebozhong11xing,tudiliyonglvketigao0.5%-2.5%,mianhuajingzhunshifeinenggoujiefei15%、danchanzengjia5%zuoyou。


zhidezhuyideshi,zaiwurenhuadatianzhongzhilingyu,woguozhibaowurenfeijifazhanyizhiduxiu。2018nianwoguozhibaowurenfeijibaoyouliangchaoguo2wantai,zuoyemianjichaoguo3yimuci,zaizhuangbeizongliang、zuoyemianjishangjunweishijiediyi。nongyongwurenfeijikedazaizhibao、yingxianghuoqu、bozhongdengduozhongzhuangzhiwanchengbutongzuoye。dajiang、jifeidengpinpaidediandongduoxuanyijixingnenggoujingzhundaohang、zhudongbizhang、dingliangshiyao。guojishang,meiguonongyongfeijiyiyourenjiashigudingyifeijiweizhu,wurenfeijizainongyezhibaozhongxianyouyingyong。ribenyingyongyoudongdanxuanyijixingjiaozao,zaizuoyeguanli、fadongjijishudengfangmianchuyuguojilingxian。


二、无人化设施栽培:主要应用于果菜、花卉育苗管理、 水肥一体化、病虫害防治、采收运输、加工包装等环节。欧美日处于世界领先水平,我国整体水平不高。

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oumeiridengyixiefadaguojiazaizidonghua、zhinenghuashengchanjishuyanjiuyuyingyongfangmianyizhichuyushijielingxianshuiping,yijingshixianlehuanjingdiaokongzidonghua、shengchanguochengwurenhua、fenjibaozhuangzhinenghua。zaisheshizaipeizhongnongyeshengchanjiqirenyeyingyongguangfan。ribenzaisheshizhongzhideyumiao、jiajie、yizai、caizhai、zhibao、shifeidenghuanjieyouduozhongnongyeshengchanjiqiren。yiselie、helan、deguo、yingguo、aodaliya、ruishi、faguodengguojiajunyouzhenduibenguotesenongyeshengchandejiqirenyanfa,caizhaijiqirenjunyouxiaoguimoshiyong。jinnianlaimeiguo、oumeng、riben、hanguodengzhidingguojiazhanlvejianggongyejiqirenjiakuaiyingyongyunongyelingyu,nongyejiqirenyanfasudumingxianjiakuai。


woguosheshinongyejixiehualvjin30%zuoyou,juyouzizhuzhishichanquandenongyejiqirendabufenhaitingliuzaiyangjijieduan,zaijingdu、xiaolvhekekaoxingfangmianheguowaixiangbihaicunzaiyidingchaju。yijiajiejiqirenweili,guoneiyanfadechanpinhaixuyaorenjixietongzuoye。


zhidexinxideshi,woguoyiwutuzaipei、litizhongzhi、zidonghuaguanliweitezhengdezhiwugongchangyanfahechanpinshuipingjiaoweixianjin,yiyoujubeizizhuzhishichanquandechengtaojishushebei,bingyidaruguojishichang。biru,shanghaipudongzhinengzhongmiaogongchangshixianlequanchengzhinenghuashengchan。yuchuantongjiyuehuazhongmiaojidixiangbi,laodongshengchanlvhedanweimianjichannengfenbietigao6beiyishang。


三、无人化设施养殖:主要应用于环境控制、饲喂、挤奶、防疫、废弃物处理等作业环节。发达国家生猪、奶牛、蛋鸡养殖已有规模化应用,我国技术装备研发能力严重滞后。

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oumeidengfadaguojiasheshiyangzhijixiezidonghuachengdujiaogao,xinxihua、zhinenghuajishuyingyongyuchumuyangzhigegehuanjie,yijianchengduozhongyangzhihuanjingzidongjiankongxitongpingtai,xingchengleshihebutongsiyangguimohequyutediandeshengchanmoshi,tebieshishengzhu、nainiu、danjiyangzhideshaorenhuashengchanyiyouguimohuayingyong。


woguoxiangguanyanjiujichuboruo,zhuangbeizhinenghuachengdubugao,hexinbujianhegaoduanchanpinyilaijinkou,danwurenhuasheshiyangzhifazhanshitouqiangjing。biru,zhongqingwanzhouqichangzhongzhuchangshixiandaihuaguimozhongzhuchang,jichengyingyongzidongweiliao、zidongyinshui、zidongqingfen、zidonghuanjingkongzhijishu,youguanlixitongtongyikongzhi。zhuchangwuchouwei、wuwushuipaifang,zhufenniaowanquanyoujifeifajiaohouyongyuguoyuanshengchan。zhongzhuchangchangniancunlan600toumuzhu,nianchulan1.5wantouduannaizizhu,chulejieshenghezhaoguburuqixiaozhuwai,jinxu6renjikebaozhangrichangzhengchangyunxing。youbiru,shandongminhemuyegufendeshaorenhuaroujizhinengyangzhichangcaiyongzidonghualongyangshebei,baokuozidonghuayinshuixitong、xingcheweiliaoxitong、daishiqingfenxitong、zidonghuaroujishoujiyushusongxitong、sheneihuanjingkongzhixitongyijichangneizhinenghuaguanlipingtai,richangguanlijinxu30renjikesiyangroujijin70wanzhi。


congfazhanqushikan,wurenhuanongyejiangzhuyaoyingyongzaiguimohuazhongzhi、sheshizaipei、sheshiyangzhilingyu,jiejueshuitianzhibao、yumiaojiajie、bingsichuqinchulidengzuoyehuanjingcha、laodongqiangduda、jingzhunduyaoqiugao、anquanfengxianfangfannandeyouguanwenti,shichangxuqiuqianlihenda。


muqian,woguowurenhuanongyefazhansuiranjubeileyidingjichu,dandabufendoushuyutansuojieduan,jishuchengshuduhejingjixingrengyouxuduoqianque,xuyaozaizhengce、keji、xiangmu、biaozhundengfangmianjijizhichi,shenrutuijinjixiehua、xinxihuaronghe,cujinnongyejixiehuagaozhiliangfazhan,nuliweinongyexiandaihuatigongxindongneng。

来源:农业行业观察

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